A career that combines bravery, physical stamina, and a deep commitment to public service. It is an occupation that captivates the imagination of many, but the road to becoming a firefighter can be a long and arduous one. For those intrigued by the prospect of joining the ranks of these heroes, the question arises: how long does it take to become a firefighter? Whether you are an aspiring firefighter or simply curious about the process, here we explore this honorable profession’s journey, one step at a time.

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How Long Does It Take to Become a Firefighter
How Long Does It Take to Become a Firefighter

Education Needed To Be A Firefighter

In the United States, the education and training required to become a firefighter can vary depending on the department and state regulations. However, there are some general steps and qualifications that are typically required across the nation. Here, we outline the educational path and requirements one needs to fulfill in order to join the firefighting profession.

High School Diploma or GED

The first step toward becoming a firefighter is to complete your high school education or obtain a General Educational Development (GED) certificate. Some fire departments may require additional college coursework or an associate degree, but a high school diploma or GED is the minimum requirement.

Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) Certification

Most fire departments require firefighter candidates to be certified Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) or possess a higher level of medical training, such as a paramedic certification. EMT certification involves completing a state-approved training program, which typically lasts from 120 to 150 hours, and passing a national or state-level certification exam.

Fire Academy Training

To become a professional firefighter, candidates must complete a fire academy training program. These programs are often run by local fire departments or state fire training academies and can last from 3 to 6 months. Training covers various aspects of firefighting, including fire suppression techniques, hazardous materials handling, and rescue operations. Upon successful completion, candidates receive a Firefighter I certification, which is the basic level of certification for firefighters.

Fire Science Degree (optional)

Although not always required, pursuing an associate or bachelor’s degree in fire science or a related field can improve your chances of being hired and promoted within a fire department. These programs typically take 2 to 4 years to complete and cover topics such as fire prevention, fire codes and standards, and emergency management.

Additional Certifications and Specializations

Firefighters can choose to pursue additional certifications and training to specialize in specific areas, such as hazardous materials, technical rescue, or fire investigation. These courses may require anywhere from a few days to several weeks of training, depending on the specialization.

In summary, the time it takes to become a firefighter in the US varies based on factors such as the length of the fire academy training, the EMT or paramedic certification process, and any additional education or specialization courses pursued. Generally, the entire process can take anywhere from 6 months to several years, with some individuals completing their training and education while working as volunteer firefighters or in other related professions.

How Long Does It Take to Get EMT Certified?

The time it takes to become an Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) can vary depending on the specific training program, state requirements, and the individual’s availability to commit to the program. On average, EMT certification can be achieved in the following timeframes:

EMT Training Program

EMT courses generally range from 120 to 150 hours, and can be completed in a variety of formats, such as full-time, part-time, or online classes. Depending on the chosen format, completing the training program can take anywhere from a few weeks for an intensive full-time course to several months for a part-time or online course.

Practical and Written Exams

After completing the EMT training program, candidates must pass both a practical (skills) examination and a written (cognitive) examination. The practical exam assesses the candidate’s ability to perform various EMT skills, while the written exam evaluates their understanding of EMT theory and practice. The time it takes to schedule and complete these exams can vary, but typically it takes a few weeks to a couple of months after finishing the training program.

State Licensing or Certification

Once candidates have successfully passed both the practical and written exams, they must apply for state licensing or certification, which may involve a background check and submission of necessary documentation. The time it takes to receive state licensure or certification can vary by state, but it generally takes a few weeks to a couple of months.

In total, the process of becoming an EMT can take anywhere from 3 to 6 months, depending on the training program, exam scheduling, and state licensure or certification process. It’s essential to research specific state requirements and training programs to understand the exact timeline for EMT certification in your area.


Various certifications are available to firefighters, which help demonstrate their skills, knowledge, and expertise in different aspects of firefighting and rescue operations. Obtaining these certifications can improve a firefighter’s career prospects, as they showcase their commitment to professional development and their ability to handle complex situations. Some of the most common certifications for firefighters include:

Firefighter I and II

These are the basic certifications that firefighters must obtain after completing their fire academy training. Firefighter I certification demonstrates proficiency in basic firefighting skills, while Firefighter II certification indicates advanced firefighting skills and leadership abilities. These certifications are often required for career advancement within a fire department.

Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) and Paramedic

Firefighters are frequently the first responders at emergency scenes, so obtaining EMT or paramedic certification is crucial. EMTs provide basic life support, while paramedics have more advanced training, including administering medications and advanced airway management. Many fire departments require at least EMT certification for entry-level firefighters, with some departments preferring or requiring paramedic certification.

Hazardous Materials (HazMat) Awareness and Operations

Firefighters may encounter hazardous materials during emergencies, so obtaining HazMat certification is essential. HazMat Awareness certification covers basic knowledge of hazardous materials, while HazMat Operations certification demonstrates proficiency in responding to and mitigating HazMat incidents.

Apparatus Driver/Operator

This certification focuses on the skills needed to safely and effectively operate various types of firefighting apparatus, such as pumpers, aerial devices, and water supply vehicles. Firefighters with this certification are trained in vehicle maintenance, driving techniques, and pump operations.

Technical Rescue

Firefighters can also pursue certifications in specialized rescue techniques, such as confined space rescue, trench rescue, rope rescue, and vehicle/machinery extrication. These certifications showcase a firefighter’s expertise in handling complex and high-risk rescue scenarios.

Fire Instructor and Fire Officer

For firefighters interested in training and leadership roles within their departments, obtaining Fire Instructor and Fire Officer certifications is beneficial. Fire Instructor certification demonstrates proficiency in teaching firefighting skills, while Fire Officer certification covers leadership and management skills for supervising and directing firefighting operations.

Fire Inspector and Fire Investigator

These certifications are geared towards firefighters who are interested in fire prevention and determining the cause and origin of fires. Fire Inspector certification covers fire code enforcement, plan review, and fire prevention education, while Fire Investigator certification focuses on fire scene examination, evidence collection, and fire cause determination.

These certifications, which are typically provided by organizations such as the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) or the International Fire Service Accreditation Congress (IFSAC), play a crucial role in a firefighter’s professional development and career advancement. Pursuing these certifications demonstrates a commitment to excellence and an ability to handle various challenges in the firefighting profession.

Training at a Fire Academy

Once you are asked to report at a particular fire academy, your training will start. As mentioned earlier, the duration will vary but be prepared to spend at least three months in training if not more. You will be trained both in-class and in the field, teaching you firefighting and fire-prevention techniques. Some firefighters may also attend federal training sessions sponsored by the National Fire Academy.

Those firefighters who wish to become wildland firefighters should know that their apprenticeship may last up to 4 years.

Fire Department Hierarchy

The following information will give you a clearer picture on how long it will take you to become a fire chief. The following is in ascending order:

  • Firefighter
  • Engineer
  • Lieutenant
  • Captain
  • Battalion chief
  • Assistant chief
  • Deputy chief
  • Chief

Also, be mindful of the fact that fire chiefs typically hold a bachelor’s degree in fire science or a related major. A bachelor’s degree in fire science will typically take you 4-years of college level education.